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When data is ranked:
1.
The highest rank is equal to the total number in the sample
2.
The median is the middle ranked value
3.
The lowest value has rank 1
4.
Any equal data values must be removed from the sample prior to ranking
5.
The mean of the values is the middle ranked value
An oxygenation index is measured in a group of 30 children less than 10 years of
age. The values obtained range from 2 to 250; the median value is 27 and the mean
60:
1.
The distribution of the oxygenation measurements is upwardly skew
2.
The best average value to use is the mean
3.
The mean is heavily influenced by relatively few children with high oxygenation
values
4.
This oxygenation index is not a reliable measurement
5.
More measurements need to be made
A group of 100 12 year old children with Fragile X syndrome undergo IQ testing.
Their mean IQ is 97, standard deviation 5. The measurements are approximately
normally distributed:
1.
The standard error of the measurements is 0.5 IQ points
2.
A 95 % confidence interval for the population mean IQ of 12 year old with Fragile
X is (96,98) based on this sample
3.
Approximately 95% of the children have IQ measurements in the range 87 to 107
4.
The mean IQ in this sample is significantly different from the expected mean of
100 amongst normal children
5.
The distribution of IQ is skew
The standard error of an estimate:
1.
Is smaller for larger sample sizes
2.
Is a measure of the precision of that estimate
3.
Cannot be negative
4.
Depends on the average value of the sample
5.
Is used to construct confidence intervals
A p-value:
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1.
Indicates the statistical significance of any differences seen in the sample(s)
2.
Lies between -1 and +1
3.
Is more useful in interpreting results than a confidence interval
4.
Is the probability of obtaining the current sample if the null hypothesis is true
5.
Indicates the clinical significance of any differences seen in the sample(s)
A parametric correlation coefficient:
1.
Must be positive
2.
of zero indicates no relationship between the measurements
3.
Takes the value 1 only if the points lie on the line of equality
4.
Shows the extent to which two continuous measurements are linearly related
5.
Is negative if there is no association
Reflex times are measured in a group of 5-15 year olds. The correlation between
reflex time and age is calculated as 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.7, 0.82):
1.
The correlation coefficient is significantly different to zero
2.
More measurements need to be made
3.
There is a linear association between reflex times and age
4.
The association is clinically important
5.
Older children tend to have slower reflex times
Blood pressures are measured in 2 groups. Those receiving some treatment have
blood pressures that are on average 6 mmHg lower than those in the untreated
group. A t-test was applied and p=0.02, 95% confidence interval for the difference
(4.16, 7.84) mmHg:
1.
The treatment should be introduced as it may be clinically relevant
2.
The treatment must have improved blood pressure by at least 4.16 mmHg on
average in the population
3.
The difference observed would have occurred by chance one time in 20 if there
really were no treatment effect
4.
Randomisation to groups was not successful
5.
The t-test would not have been appropriate if the blood pressure measurements
were skew
The numbers of children positive for a certain genetic defect were compared between
asthmatics and healthy controls of a similar age:
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1.
The study is invalid because it is not randomised
2.
A t-test could be used to assess the significance of the differences between
groups
3.
Chi-square could be used to test the significance of the differences in proportions
positive amongst the asthmatic and healthy groups
4.
Age may be a confounder
5.
A confidence interval for the difference in proportions positive would assist in
interpretation of the results
Within a randomised controlled trial, of 100 individuals who received standard care,
40 had an adverse event in the following year this is in contrast to 20 of 100 who
received a program of intensified care:
1.
Percentage reduction in adverse events attributable to intensified care = 20
2.
The number need to treat (NNT) to avoid one adverse event = 5
3.
Relative risk (RR) = 0.5
4.
A confidence interval for the percentage reduction will depend on the sample
size
5.
Age may be a confounder in the comparison
The average (mean) BMI score of 30 children with Turners syndrome is 20 and the
standard deviation is 3:
1.
If the BMI values are normally distributed, then most of the measurements will lie
between 14 and 26
2.
None of the children are clinically obese
3.
Plotting BMI against age will be informative
4.
Normality of BMI scores should be considered when interpreting these results
5.
Thirty children is too few to give any useful information

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