discussion report

read Chapter 9, pages 205-23. write a summary and a critical address of the discussion topic. Each one of your submissions must be of one-page in length (about 500 words), typed, single spaced, with one-inch margins, using Times Roman 12pt font. By “a summary and a critical address of the discussion topic,” I mean that you are asked to write a short summary of the discussion topic of that week and add to that your thoughts, comments and reflections about that issue. The structure of your report should be as followed: Half a page summary of the topic in discussion and half a page your reflections and opinion on that topic.I attached the book below
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Announcing Cengage Learning’s Global Environmental Ethics Watch
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Environmental Ethics
An Introduction
to Environmental Philosophy
FIFTH EDITION
JOSEPH R. DESJARDINS
College of Saint Benedict/St. John’s University
Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States
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Environmental Ethics: An
Introduction to Environmental
Philosophy, Fifth Edition
Joseph R. DesJardins
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2011941646
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One summer morning, while driving through the countryside, my four-year-old son
asked, “Daddy, what are trees good for?” Sensing a precious moment of parenthood,
I began gently to explain that as living things they don’t need to be good for anything,
but that trees do provide homes to many other living things, that they make and
clean the air that we breathe, that they can be majestic and beautiful. “But daddy,”
he said, “I’m a scientist and I know more than you because you forgot the most
important thing. Trees are good for climbing.”
I hope that I have not missed too many other such obvious truths in writing
this book, which I dedicate to Michael and Matthew.
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Contents
PREFACE
xi
I
Basic Concepts
1
1
Science, Politics, and Ethics
3
Discussion: Global Climate Change
Discussion Topics 6
3
1.1
Introduction: Why Philosophy?
1.2
1.3
Science and Ethics 8
Philosophy, Politics, and Ethical Relativism
1.4
1.5
Environmental Ethics: An Overview
Summary 18
Notes 19
Discussion Questions
15
16
19
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
2
6
20
Ethical Theories and the Environment
21
Discussion: Why Protect Endangered Species?
21
2.1
Discussion Topics 22
Introduction 23
2.2
2.3
Philosophial Ethics: Getting Comfortable with the Topic 24
The Natural Law Tradition—Teleology and Virtues 27
2.4
2.5
Contemporary Perspectives on Teleology
The Utilitarian Tradition 33
30
v
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some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
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vi
CONTENTS
2.6
Contemporary Perspectives on Utilitarianism
36
2.7
2.8
Deontology: An Ethics of Duty and Rights 37
Contemporary Perspectives on Deontological Ethics
2.9
Environmental Ethics and Religious Principles
38
40
The Good of God’s Creation 41
Finding the Divine in Nature 41
The Ultimate Respect for and Value of Life
Social Justice Ministries 42
Stewardship 43
2.10 Summary and Conclusions
Notes
42
43
44
Discussion Questions 44
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
45
II
Environmental Ethics as Applied Ethics
3
Ethics and Economics: Managing Public Lands
Discussion: BP’s Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
49
49
3.1
Discussion Topics 50
Introduction 51
3.2
3.3
Conservation or Preservation? 51
Managing the National Forests 54
3.4
Pollution and Economics
3.5
3.6
Ethical Issues in Economic Analysis
Cost-Benefit Analysis 64
3.7
3.8
Ethical Analysis and Environmental Economics
Summary and Conclusions 71
Notes 71
Discussion Questions
59
62
66
73
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
4
47
73
Sustainability and Responsibilities to the Future
Discussion: Sustainability: Fad or Future?
74
74
4.1
Discussion Topics 76
Introduction 77
4.2
4.3
Do We Have Responsibilities to Future Generations?
What do We Owe Future Generations? 81
4.4
4.5
Consumption and Sustainable Development
Summary and Conclusions 92
78
88
Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights,
some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
vii
CONTENTS
Notes
92
Discussion Questions 94
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
5
94
Responsibilities to the Natural World: From Anthropocentric
to Nonanthropocentric Ethics 95
Discussion: Industrial Farming: Mass Producing Animals as Food
Discussion Topics 97
5.1
Introduction
97
5.2
5.3
Moral Standing in the Western Tradition
Early Environmental Ethics 101
5.4
5.5
Moral Standing 105
Do Trees Have Standing?
5.6
Peter Singer and the Animal Liberation Movement
5.7
5.8
Tom Regan and Animal Rights 112
Ethical Implications of Animal Welfare
5.9 Critical Challenges 115
5.10 Summary and Conclusions
Notes 119
Discussion Questions
98
108
110
114
119
121
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
122
III
Theories of Environmental Ethics
123
6
Biocentric Ethics and the Inherent Value of Life 125
Discussion: Synthetic Biology and the Value of Life 125
6.1
Discussion Topics 127
Introduction 127
6.2
6.3
Instrumental Value and Intrinsic Value 129
Biocentric Ethics and the Reverence for Life
6.4
Ethics and Character
6.5
6.6
Taylor’s Biocentric Ethics 136
Practical Implications 140
6.7
6.8
Challenges and Developments 143
Summary and Conclusions 145
Notes 146
Discussion Questions
132
135
147
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
148
Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights,
some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
95
viii
7
CONTENTS
Wilderness, Ecology, and Ethics
149
Discussion: Wilderness Management: Fighting Fires in Yellowstone
Discussion Topics 151
7.1
Introduction
7.2
7.3
The Wilderness Ideal 153
The Wilderness “Myth”: The Contemporary Debate
7.4
7.5
From Ecology to Philosophy 163
From Ecology to Ethics 169
7.6
7.7
Varieties of Holism 171
Summary and Conclusions
Notes
151
173
The Land Ethic
176
177
Discussion: Hunting, Ethics, and the Environment
8.1
Discussion Topics 178
Introduction 179
8.2
8.3
The Land Ethic 180
Leopold’s Holism 183
8.4
Criticisms of the Land Ethic: Facts and Values
8.5
8.6
Criticisms of the Land Ethic: Holistic Ethics
Callicott’s Revisions 195
8.7
Summary and Conclusions
Notes 200
177
185
189
199
Discussion Questions 201
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
9
157
173
Discussion Questions 175
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
8
149
202
Radical Environmental Philosophy: Deep Ecology
and Ecofeminism 203
Discussion: Environmental Activism or Ecoterrorism?
9.1
Discussion Topics 205
Introduction 205
9.2
9.3
Deep Ecology 207
The Deep Ecology Platform
9.4
9.5
Metaphysical Ecology 209
From Metaphysics to Ethics 212
9.6
Self-Realization And Biocentric Equality
203
208
216
Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights,
some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
CONTENTS
9.7
Criticisms of Deep Ecology
9.8
9.9
Ecofeminism: Making Connections 221
Ecofeminism: Recent Developments 224
9.10 Summary and Conclusions
Notes 228
Discussion Questions
218
227
231
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
10
231
Environmental Justice and Social Ecology
Discussion: Environmental Refugees
Discussion Topics 233
232
232
10.1 Introduction 233
10.2 Property Rights and Libertarian Justice
234
10.3 Justice as Fairness 238
10.4 Environmental Justice and Environmental Racism
10.5 Murray Bookchin’s Social Ecology
10.6 Critical Reflections 246
10.7 Summary and Conclusions
Notes 249
Discussion Questions
243
248
251
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
11
240
252
Pluralism, Pragmatism, and Sustainability
253
Discussion: Carbon Mitigation and Stabilization Wedges
Discussion Topics 254
253
11.1 Introduction: Agreement and Disagreement in Environmental
Ethics 255
11.2 Moral Pluralism and Moral Monism 256
11.3 Environmental Pragmatism 259
11.4 Conclusion: Sustainability Revisited
Notes
263
265
Global Environmental Ethics Watch
265
GLOSSARY
267
INDEX
271
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some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
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ix
Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights,
some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
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Preface
O
ne winter evening some years ago, I reread Aldo Leopold’s A Sand County
Almanac. This occurred a few months after I had moved to rural Minnesota
from suburban Philadelphia. I came upon Leopold’s entry for February:
There are two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm. One is the danger
of supposing that breakfast comes from the grocery, and the other that heat
comes from the furnace. To avoid the first danger, one should plant a
garden, preferably where there is no grocer to confuse the issue. To avoid
the second, he should lay a split of good oak on the andirons, preferably
where there is no furnace.
This passage struck me in a way that it never could have had I still been living
in a metropolitan area. The fact that it was 27 degrees below zero outside, and
I was sitting in front of a roaring oak fire might have had something to do with
this. I recognized that there are more than just two spiritual dangers in not
owning a farm; one other concerns divorcing your life from your work. That
evening, I realized that teaching courses on environmental and ecological issues
would mean more to me now, personally and professionally, than it could have
in the city. This book grows out of a commitment to integrate more fully my
life with my work.
The primary aim of this book is simple: to provide a clear, systematic, and
comprehensive introduction to the philosophical issues underlying environmental and ecological controversies. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, it is
fair to say that human beings face environmental challenges unprecedented in
the history of this planet. Largely through human activity, the very climate of the
Earth is changing, and life on Earth faces the greatest mass extinctions since the end
of the dinosaur age sixty-five million years ago. The natural resources that sustain
life on this planet—air, water, and soil—are being polluted or depleted at alarming
rates. Human population growth is increasing exponentially. When the first edition
of this book was begun in 1990, the world population was 5.5 billion people.
xi
Copyright 201 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights,
some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
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xii
PREFACE
By 2012 it will have grown to 7 billion, a 27 percent increase in just over twenty
years. The prospects for continued degradation and depletion of natural resources
multiply with this population growth. Toxic wastes that will plague future generations continue to accumulate worldwide. The world’s wilderness areas—its forests,
wetlands, mountains, and grasslands—are being developed, paved, drained,
burned, and overgrazed out of existence.
The tendency in our culture is to treat such issues as simply scientific, technological, or political problems. But they are much more than that. These environmental and ecological controversies raise fundamental questions about what we as
human beings value, about the kind of beings we are, the kinds of lives we should
live, our place in nature, and the kind of world in which we might flourish. In short,
environmental problems raise fundamental questions of ethics and philosophy. This
book seeks to provide a systematic introduction to these philosophical issues.
OVERVIEW
A significant amount of philosophically interesting and important research on
environmental and ecological issues has been conducted during the past few decades. The structure of this book reflects the way the fields of environmental
ethics and environmental philosophy have developed during that period.
Two initial chapters …
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