Instructions –This paper is for an Intro Microbiology
course. There is no specific page numbers needed concepts should be
explained without regard to page number.Writer – Please use BOLDED subheadings
in the paper. Subheadings are in bold.You must have an introduction and
conclusion paragraph for this paper.APA format (in-text citations and
references) American English. Title of paper meet Neisseria
*****Please try to make parts of this paper
easy to understand as possible for non microbiologists.
Do not simplify by excluding details but rather explain them.
For example, your book introduces flagella this way:
The prokaryotic flagellum is
an appendage of phenomenal construction and is certainly unique in
the biological world. Flagella provide the power of motility or
self-propulsion (p. 93).
Your version of this
introduction to flagellum could be something like this. Lets
assume your selected bacterial pathogen was Helycobacter pyloris, or
H. pyloris for short, the bacterium related to stomach ulcers.H. pyloris, and other bacteria
have structures coming off their surface called flagellum; they
look like thin tails. Flagella – the plural of flagellum, are amazing
structures. The flagella in H. pyloris help them move around
(motility) by rotating and moving like the propellers in boats or
airplanes. Writing in the tone that
corresponds to the target audience is an important component of this
assignment. Most references that you will find in your research are
likely to be at college level or beyond. It is your job to select the
few details that are relevant and leave behind those that are not.
You need to understand very well the different aspects of this
research project to be able to write about it in clear and simple
*** Find an electron micrograph of the
pathogen or an artist rendition . Add the source of the images used
and the Internet address to the page that provides the link to the
image, not the direct link to the image.**Find appropriate graphs or images to
illustrate two of the processes included in this report. For
example, you could add a figure showing enzyme activation and
catalysis work, and an illustration of the DNA and RNA molecules to
show their structure and base pairs.
Label images and tables as Figures # or Table #, and refer to them
as such in the body of the paper.Include a combined reference page placing
images and tables at the end of the paper, one in each page, is
write into paragraph here.Introduction to Neisseria
information about the discovery of Neisseria
such as when, where and how was this bacterium discovered and who
discovered (person or research lab). Include interesting/engaging
information like the meaning of the name, and any story related to
the pathogens discovery that is worth sharing.
Describe shape and sizeDescribe external structure – Fimbria on outside of the cell and
what the function of fimbria is. Pili if this bacteria has itThis is a gram negative bacteria. Describe the composition of the
cell wallDescribe the principle INTERNAL structures of the bacteriaHow Neisseria
gonorrhoeae infects its hostsWhat internal or external structures are useful to this bacterium
to infect its hosts? Explain at least two.Metabolism, Growth, and
List the different types of microorganisms based on 1) their
source of carbon; 2) the energy sources for different types of
organisms, and 3) the type of energy metabolism in heterotrophs
(e.g., oxygen respiration).
Explain with more detail the classifications of Neisseria
gonorrhoeae based on the three parameters listed above.
Describe how enzymes work. Include the terms catalyst, activation
energy, substrates, bonding, and products. Explain how bacteria
obtain energy during fermentation and aerobic respiration. Describe
the advantages and disadvantages of both fermentation and aerobic
respiration to the bacterial pathogen. Use the number of ATP
generated in your comparison. Indicate the type of process or
processes Neisseria gonorrhoeae use to get energy.Briefly describe bacterial growth and binary fission. Define
exponential growth and indicate the conditions necessary for
exponential growth. List some of the environmental factors that
affect microbial growth.
Find possible environmental factors that Neisseria gonorrhoeae
may encounter and describe them.
Briefly describe the structure of DNA and RNA. Explain the role of
DNA and RNA in the formation of proteins; use the terms replication,
transcription and translation in your explanation.Find information on the DNA sequencing of the chromosome of your
selected bacterium to complete the table below, and compare your
bacterial chromosome to the human chromosome one, the largest of the
23 pairs of chromosomes in the human genome. Define or describe
the characteristics shown in the first column. (indicate the
source for the data used to complete the table)
Selected Bacterial Pathogen Chromosome
Human Chromosome One
Size, mm. (bp x 0.34 x 0.000001)
Encoding segments or genes
Non-encoding segments or pseudogenes
From Wikipedia, Human Genome. Last updated 04/20/2018
bp = base pairs
Genetic mutation and
antibiotic resistanceWhat is the role of genetic mutations on the development of
antibiotic resistance by some bacterial species? Explain. Is
Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to some antibiotics?Microbial Human InteractionsBriefly describe the role of the resident microbiota of the human
body. Give at least two areas of the body colonized by different type
of microorganisms. Include the name of the microorganisms. Determine
whether your selected bacterial pathogen is part of the normal
microbiota, and the parts of the body where these bacteria reside
For your selected pathogen, briefly describe the pathogens
invasion process including the portals of entry, attachment, and way
of establishment, virulence factors, and portal of exit. If some of
this information is not available, use information from a similar
bacteria; include the name of the similar bacteria.
Describe the stages of clinical infection, patterns of infection,
and signs and symptoms of infection related to your selected pathogen
or to a similar pathogen. Explain the difference between infection
and disease.Describe the disease(s) caused by your selected pathogen,
including the parts of the body affected, symptoms and modes of
detection (e.g., tests). Present any other information about the
disease found relevant or unique/rare.Physical and chemical
agents for microbial control
List the major types of physical methods of microbial control.
Describe the mode of action of at least two physical methods of
control. Identify one physical method used to control your selected
pathogen or similar bacteria and describe the mode of action.
List the major categories of chemical methods of microbial
control. Identify at least two categories chemical agents of control
that may be used to control your selected pathogen or similar
bacteria; indicate the correct use, effectiveness, and possible
toxicity of the agent to humans.
Chemotherapy Drug action and selectionDiscuss the main characteristics of the ideal antimicrobial drug.
Discuss the major modes of action of antimicrobial agents in
controlling microbial growth and give examples of antimicrobials for
each mode of action. Identify one antibacterial drug used to treat
the disease caused by your selected pathogen. Describe the mechanism
of action of such antibacterial drug and the spectrum of
Explain how the appropriate antimicrobials are chosen for specific
diseases including the Kirby-Bauer and MIC tests. Identify a test, if
any, used to identify the antimicrobial drugs used for your selected
pathogen.***** Conclusion paragraph
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