Now that you have reviewed “Researching Credible Sources,” find at least 3 sources for your upcoming paper that are credible and current. Try finding at least one journal article, but the rest can be online news sources. For each source, do the following in an MLA formatted Word document:Include the proper MLA citation. (Use pages 4-6 of the “Quoting Sources Using MLA” handout below for help with how to create citations for your articles.)Provide a brief 1-2 sentence overview of the article. What is it about?Explain why it will be useful for your paper.*You can submit more than 3 sources if you want. Each credible source submitted beyond the 3 minimum will earn 3 bonus points (this does not count toward your extra credit max).
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Quoting Sources Using MLA
Basic In-Text Citation Rules
When incorporating research into your essays, its important to follow the ?5-Step process?.
Step #1:? ?Introduce? the ?author,? ?title?, and ?type? of source. The first time you do this, you should
use the authors full name and provide a bit of ?credibility? (an important fact or two about the
author). After that, you may simply use the authors last name. If you are only including one
source by this author, you do not need to keep referring to the source title unless you introduce
other outside sources into the same paragraph. When in doubt, the more information you include,
the less your reader will be confused.
Step #2:? ?Contextualize? your quote or paraphrase. Let the reader know what the author was
discussing in the piece overall or leading up to the quote/paraphrase you are going to use. That
way, your reader is not confused. You should always do this.
Step #3:? Include the actual ?quote or paraphrase? using MLA formatting. Include a
parenthetical citation? at the end of the sentence with the ?page number? where you got the
Step #4:? ?Explain? the quote. By explaining the quote in your own words (paraphrasing), this
demonstrates to your reader that you understand the point the author was making.
Step #5: ?Analyze? the quote. Analyzing the quote helps the reader figure out why it is significant
in relation to what you are talking about in your essay. (Dont make the reader guess as to why
youre including it). This should include you explicitly connecting the authors idea to your topic
sentence (assertion) or to a point you were making within the body paragraph.
Complete Student Example Using the 5-Step Process:
(Steps 1 & 2 ) Damien Cave, writer and Phillips Foundation Fellow, wrote an article called On
Sale at Old Navy: Cool Clothes for Identical Zombies, where he discusses the detrimental
effects consumerism has on the general public. (Step 3 ) He argues, When people spend so
much time buying, thinking and talking about products, they dont have time for anything else,
for real conversations about politics or culture or for real interaction with people (Cave 29).
(Step 4 ) What Cave is trying to assert is that American citizens obsession with consumerism
can negatively affect their relationships with important issues in society, and especially other
people. (Step 5 ) This Dr. Pepper advertisement is a perfect example of this quote because the
Dr. Pepper beverage is portrayed to be more entertaining and satisfying when compared to the
conversation with the man. By having the woman imagine a much more content atmosphere
while consuming the beverage, a viewer is assumed to believe that the beverage is what is
causing the woman to have a wonderful time on the date and not the potential relationship or
human interface she is participating in (this being the advertisements main argument).
**Note: You ?do not? need to label these steps in your essays.
Place quotations longer than four typed lines in a free-standing block of text, and omit quotation
marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left
margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you
are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come ?after? the closing
punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain
double-spacing throughout your essay.) For example:
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no
more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the
morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw’s
door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got
there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was
sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
Adding or Omitting Words in Quotations
If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate
that they are not part of the original text.
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: “some individuals [who retell urban
legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale” (78).
If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by
using ellipsis marks, which are three periods (…) preceded and followed by a space. For
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that “some individuals make a point of
learning every recent rumor or tale (…) and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs”
A Quotation within a Quotation
Use single quotations inside of double quotations when the source youre quoting was quoting
According to Greg Critser, author of ?Supersize Me,? the founder of McDonalds was at first
reluctant to supersize: Wallerstein could not convince Ray Croc, McDonalds founder, to sign
on to the idea ( ). If people want more fries, Kroc would say, then they can buy two bags
MLA format requires the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the authors
last name and the page number(s) of the source must be included after the quote or paraphrase,
and a complete reference for the source should appear on your Works Cited page at the end of
your essay. The author’s name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses
following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s), if there are any, should always
appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
When you dont mention the author in the sentence, the in-text citation should look like this:
Romantic poetry is characterized by the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings
When you do mention the author in the sentence, the in-text citation should look like this:
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a spontaneous overflow of powerful
When you do mention the author in the sentence, and there arent any page numbers, no
parenthetical citation is needed!
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a spontaneous overflow of powerful
? Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It
should have the same one-inch margins and last name/page number header as the rest of
? Label the page Works Cited. Do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in
quotation marks. Center the words Works Cited at the top of the page.
? Double space all citations, but do not add extra spaces between entries.
? Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations by 0.5 inches.
? Works cited entries should be listed alphabetically by the authors last name. Author
names are written last name first. If there is no author, then you alphabetize by the first
word of the entry.
New 2016 MLA 8th edition:
When deciding how to cite each source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are
the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In
your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:
2. Title of source.
3. Title of container,
4. Other contributors,
8. Publication date,
Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown above.
*The container is the larger work that a source comes from. For instance, the container for a
scholarly article would be the scholarly journal it was published in.
Example Entries of Common Sources
Last name, First name. ?Title of Book?. Publisher, Publication Date.
Gleick, James. ?Chaos: Making a New Science?. Penguin, 1987.
Online News Article
Name of the author or editor. Title of article. Title of the website, in italics, Date of
publication, URL. Date of access.
Lundman, Susan. “Why Facebook Can Destroy a Relationship.” ?The New York Times,? 5 June
2014, ?www.nytimes.com/why-facebook-can-destroy_424.html. ?Accessed 6 July 2015?.
Article in a Scholarly Journal
Author(s). Title of article. ?Title of journal, ?volume, issue, publication year, pages, URL. Date
Wheelis, Mark and Maria Nozario. “Investigating Disease Outbreaks.” ?Emerging Infectious
Diseases?, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/000607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.
Title of video. ?YouTube,? name of uploader, date of upload, URL.
8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test. ?YouTube, ?uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 Jun. 2016,
Name of the director. Film title. The film studio or distributor, the release year.
Lucas, George, director. ?Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope.? Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.
Twitter handle. Text of tweet. Publisher, Date published, time posted, URL.
@tombrokaw. “SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign.” ?Twitter,
22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.
A Personal Interview
Interviewee name. Personal interview. Date interview was conducted.
Navario, Maria. Personal interview. 19 May 2016.
Dean, Cornelia. “Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet.” ?New York Times?, 22 May 2007,
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?_r=0. Accessed 12 May
Ebert, Roger. “An Inconvenient Truth.” Review of ?An Inconvenient Truth,? directed by Davis
Guggenheim. ?rogerebert.com,? 1 June 2006,
http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/aninconvenient-truth-2006. Accessed 15 June 2016.
An Inconvenient Truth.? Directed by Davis Guggenheim, performances by Al Gore and Billy
West, Paramount, 2006.
Leroux, Marcel. ?Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology?. Springer,
Milken, Michael, Gary Becker, Myron Scholes, and Daniel Kahneman. “On Global Warming
and Financial Imbalances.” ?New Perspectives Quarterly,? vol. 23, no. 4, 2006, pp. 63.
Nordhaus, William D. “After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming.”
American Economic Review?, vol. 96, no. 2, 2006, pp. 31-34.
—. “Global Warming Economics.” ?Science, ?vol. 294, no. 5545, 9 Nov. 2001, pp. 1283-84, DOI:
Regas, Diane. Three Key Energy Policies That Can Help Us Turn the Corner on Climate.
Environmental Defense Fund?, 1 June 2016, ?www.edf.org/blog/2016/06/01/3-key
energypolicies-can-help-us-turn-corner-climate. Accessed 19 July 2016.
Uzawa, Hirofumi. ?Economic Theory and Global Warming?. Cambridge UP, 2003.
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